ammonium nitrate fuel oil

The use of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil ANFO results in low cost blasting Such costs may be further reduced by replacing fuel oil with alternative fuels such as biomass biodiesel rice straw cob sugar cane bagasse and tires residue This paper investigates the use of other fuels instead of fuel oil by measuring the nbsp

United States Patent 9 Claims in 149 41 This invention relates to explosive compositions comprising ammonium nitrate and a fuel or sensitizer and which are resistant to the development of charges of static electricity Explosives composed of ammonium nitrate and oleaginous fuel of the fuel oil type are commonly known nbsp

Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications Slurries Emulsions and Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oils Erode G Mahadevan ISBN 978 3 527 33028 7 230 pages February 2013 nbsp

In 1955 it was discovered that mixtures of ammonium nitrate and fine coal dust would give very satisfactory blasting results in the large about 22 5 centimetre 9 inch holes used in open pit coal mines to remove the rock and soil covering the coal Polyethylene bags for this material both stretched to fill the holes and nbsp

ANFO is a widely used bulk industrial explosive It consists of 94 porous prilled ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 AN which acts as the oxidizing agent and absorbent for the fuel and 6 number 2 fuel oil FO ANFO has found wide use in coal mining quarrying metal mining and civil construction in applications where its nbsp

has been used to collect data on toxic fumes produced by the detonation of various ammonium nitrate fuel oil ANFO mixtures and several cap sensitive explosives ANFO composition ranging from 1 to 10 percent pct fuel oil have been studied As expected from previous studies with an increase in fuel oil content the nbsp

Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil ANFO is one of many explosive raw material types in which its biggest components consist of AN mixed with fuel oil Based on the research studies it is found that the experts in mining tend to use ANFO for its safe and economic characteristics Compared to other explosive raw materials ANFO nbsp

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil ANFO is a mixture of solid ammonium nitrate and mineral oil Easy handling allows it to be used safely in mining stone quarrying and tunnel construction The basic reaction during detonation is the decomposition of the hydrocarbon and the ammonium nitrate into CO2 nitrogen and water

12 Jul 2011 Although it appears close we are a long ways away

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A low density ammoniumn nitrate fuel oil ANFO explosive was de veloped by diluting the normal density explosive with low density polystyrene beads Stable detonations were achieved in mixtures having densities over the range 0 5 to 0 9 gm cm3 The detonation velocity was found to decrease approximately linearly nbsp

3 May 2010 quot The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion but the engine needs fuel quot Goodpaster told Life 39 s Little Mysteries In fact bombs need two components beside the fertilizer a detonator and a fuel The fertilizer must be mixed with a fuel in an exact ratio and the detonator must be able to nbsp

ANFO amp Emulsion Characteristics Heavy Blends as a Tool for Blasters What is needed for an explosion ANFO Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil Ammonium Nitrate Production Reaction of anhydrous ammonia gas and concentrated nitric acid After the reaction the AN solution is about 83 concentration Excess water is nbsp

ANFOS ANFO is an acronym for Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil Solution An ANFO solves the only other major problem with ammonium nitrate its tendency to pick up water vapor from the air This results in the explosive failing to detonate when such an attempt is made This is rectified by mixing 94 by weight ammonium nbsp

26 Jan 2010 In September 2008 DRDC Valcartier was tasked by Director Ammunition and Explosives Management and Engineering DAEME 3 4 to perform a literature review to assess the effect of Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil ANFO on the environment and to determine its suitability for service The Canadian nbsp

ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosives as improvised explosive device charges V Kavicky L Figuli S Jangl amp Z Ligasová Faculty of Special Engineering University of Žilina Slovakia Abstract When the over pressure of a blast wave is calculated and its effects on valuated objects are set many approximations are used

ANFO is een tertiair explosief ongevoelig en moeilijk tot ontploffing te brengen en kan niet met een ontsteker tot ontploffing worden gebracht Hiervoor is een secundair explosief 39 normale 39 springstof en ontsteker nodig ANFO heeft in de mijnbouw het dynamiet grotendeels verdrongen Doordat ammoniumnitraat ook nbsp

Inhalation of ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosive ANFO and possible concomitant exposure P Sostrand Copyright and License information ▻ Copyright notice Full Text The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF 78K Articles from Occupational and Environmental Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ nbsp

ES Inhalation of ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosive ANFO and possible concomitant exposure EDITOR Donoghue1 reports on respiratory symptoms and rhonchi in a miner after expo sure to ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosive ANFO As diesel fuel is the most commonly used fuel in ANFO the vapour he refers to

12 Jun 2013 The present invention relates to ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixtures and includes compositions comprising a ammonium nitrate b a fuel component c a functionalized polymer component and d an oil soluble anionic surfactant wherein the mixture of components b c and d form a gel that will not nbsp

In December of 1956 Melvin Cook 39 s invented a new blasting agent using an unusual mixture of ammonium nitrate aluminum powder and water The safety and efficiency of this new explosive were apparent and the use of water was revolutionary Tests that followed resulted in the development of a new field of explosives nbsp

9 Oct 2012 Cost effective new formulation of ANFO by using Biomass Briquette as Additive By Partha Das Sharma Endeavour is to promote cost effective composition of ANFO which do not compromise with the energy output VOD very much 1 Introduction ANFO or Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil is a widely used nbsp

results of studies of mixtures of AN and fuel oil but not of other fuels and sensitizers This study is aimed primarily at engineering students who desire a basic knowledge of the performance parameters of ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixtures wii Page 3 AMMONIUM NITRATE Because of its oxygen content and favorable nbsp

10 Nov 2009 Ammonium nitrate fuel oil ANFO blasting agents represent the largest industrial explosive manufactured in terms of quantity in the United States This product is used primarily in mining and quarrying operations

7 Feb 2015 Date Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 22 09 12 October 2009 middot Thumbnail for version as of 22 09 12 October 2009 2 304 × 1 728 1 77 Firsthuman talk contribs Information Description en 1 ammonium nitrate fuel oil ANFO Explosive used by the K S AG nbsp

About 4000 pounds of ANFO a mixture of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel was used to blow up the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 199

1 Oct 1995 ANFO The Tool of Destruction BY FRANK L FIRE ANFO is an acronym for the most popular blasting agents in use today It stands for ammonium nitrate fuel oil and it is a simple mixture of the two Ammonium nitrate is an oxidizing agent that does more than just supply oxygen to support the combustion of nbsp

Effective blasting using mixture of ammonium nitrate fuel oil sawdust and used oil at limestone mine P Pal Roy 1 C Sawmliana 1 R K Singh 1 and V K Chakunde 2 The efficacy of a mixture of ammonium nitrate prills sawdust fresh diesel and used oil engine oil hydraulic oil transmission oil etc as an efficient nbsp

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture is commercially available as pale white gray yellow or pink oil covered prills with a petroleum odor Non commercially produced forms may be darker in color It is used for blasting rock and in some types of mining It will accelerate the burning of combustible materials The ammonium nbsp

Grades of ammonium nitrate Cap sensitivity test Fire hazards Fighting fires Fighting fires in ammonium nitrate in fuel oil ammonium nitrate mixtures Fighting fires involving explosives Underground applications Recommendations covering blasting agents Storage of ammonium nitrate

21 Apr 1995 Kauffman said farmers would take some fertilizer mix it with a little kerosene quot even old used motor oil will do quot put it under the stump with a quarter stick of dynamite quot and that would take care of that quot All chemical explosives require a fuel and an oxidizer Ammonium nitrate provides both intimately nbsp

Toxic fumes from explosives ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixtures by R F Chaiken E B Cook and T C Ruhe Washington U S Bureau of Mines 1974 622 06173 no 7867 TN23 U7 24 p illus tables U S Bureau of Mines Report of investi gations 7867 Includes bibliography 1 Explosives 2 Fume control

Such divergence is responsible for the diameter effect and failure diameter phenomena in condensed phase explosives and particularly dominant in detonation of nonideal explosives such as Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil ANFO In this study the effect of reaction zone flow divergence on ANFO detonation was explored nbsp

Low density ammonium nitrate fuel oil to improve gold recovery by K K Kabongo Introduction Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil commonly known as ANFO or ANFEX a trade name registered by AECI in mining industry jargon is an excellent explosive charge for large scale blasting as it combines both performance and low nbsp